Additive Manufacturing - A Revolutionary Approach to Turbine Wheel Development and Production

turbine

With this emphasis on the term ‘Next Generation’ it is often easy to lose sight of the fact that we are not necessarily talking about new technologies but enhancements and improvements to existing often simple technologies. The Electric Wastegate Turbocharger is a perfect example of this.

The Additive Manufacturing Approach

The prototyping industry utilises additive manufacturing to generate 3D parts using plastic media. This technique is a recognised approach for providing a visualisation aid so that key considerations such as ease of manufacture can be assessed, for example. The manufacturing method reduces the time taken to develop new products and improves the collaboration and knowledge sharing between cross functional groups such as engineering, manufacturing and supply chain. However, there are limitations to this additive manufacturing approach, most notably when the parts are due to be produced from metal in a volume production environment. In such instances, although the plastic prototype components act as visual representations of the finished parts, they do not possess the mechanical, metallurgical or physical properties of their metal counterparts.

A recent trend has therefore been to produce metal components using additive manufacturing, in order to generate parts which bear greater resemblance to those produced through conventional methods. Such components have the potential to be utilised within research and development validation testing and act as a source of hardware for customer testing purposes. However, as the field of metal-based additive manufacturing is in its relative infancy, there is a limited knowledge base in terms of the mechanical, topographical and metallurgical characteristics of additive manufactured components, alongside minimal comparisons made against conventionally produced counterparts. Hence, a vast amount of research and development is being conducted by the aerospace, medical and automotive industries in order to gain further knowledge in this important future manufacturing area.

Cutting Edge Research

Cummins Turbo Technologies is conducting cutting edge research in conjunction with a UK University in order to develop the technical information behind generating, characterising and developing metal-based additive manufactured turbine wheels which are suitable for use within modern diesel turbocharger applications.A turbine wheel, as shown in Figure 1, is a highly stressed component, with very stringent aerodynamic performance criteria and is subjected to extreme operating conditions. Therefore, when produced using conventional manufacturing methods, a turbine wheel is investment cast from an appropriate nickel superalloy in order to achieve specific metallurgical characteristics and mechanical properties within the generated component. The casting process has been consistently developed by Cummins Turbo Technologies using over 60 years of product development knowledge.

Figure 1 - Turbocharger Turbine Wheel

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The systematic approach to the additive manufacturing research conducted by Cummins Turbo Technologies is stated in Figure 2. The first part of the research has produced a comprehensive assessment of additive manufacturing technology, which includes a detailed understanding of the machines, powder-based materials and key future developments within the topic field. This stage of the research has provided a foundation from which further technology and innovation can be developed.

Figure 2 - Approach to Additive Manufacturing Research employed by Cummins Turbo Technologies

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Cummins Turbo Technologies has subsequently started to produce turbine wheels using additive manufacturing and has been critically assessing the generated components in terms of dimensions, surface topography, mechanical properties and metallurgical characteristics using cutting edge techniques. As there are a limited number of materials which have been developed for use within additive manufacturing, the suitability of specific turbine wheel superalloys for the manufacturing process will also be evaluated. Documentation of all of the relevant additive manufacturing processes and procedures will be completed, in order to ensure the accurate and repeatable production of turbine wheels. Once the technical knowledge behind the production and characterisation of turbocharger turbine wheels has been developed, the information will be utilised to develop novel product designs.

A New Generation of Innovative Technologies

As the field of metal-based additive manufacturing is rapidly growing in terms of knowledge base and technical capability, it is important to develop a business case for the application of additive manufacturing to turbocharger turbine wheels. Such a business case will encapsulate the information acquired throughout the aforementioned research process and determine the most appropriate approach to the use of additive manufacturing of turbocharger turbine wheels.

The research being completed by Cummins Turbo Technologies in the field of additive manufacturing is affording a revolutionary approach to turbine wheel development and production, therefore acting as a catalyst to the generation of innovative products and technology.

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Cummins Inc.

Cummins is a global power leader that designs, manufactures, sells and services diesel and alternative fuel engines from 2.8 to 95 liters, diesel and alternative-fueled electrical generator sets from 2.5 to 3,500 kW, as well as related components and technology. Cummins serves its customers through its network of 600 company-owned and independent distributor facilities and more than 7,200 dealer locations in over 190 countries and territories.

Surface Engineering of Turbomachinery Components to Meet Future Industry Trends

Materials Engineer

Novel Solutions for Materials Engineering
Increased demands are being placed upon turbochargers as a result of ever more stringent emissions regulations, a necessity for improved product performance and reliability and a requirement for a wider product operating range. Consequently, a greater level of stress is placed upon the materials from which turbochargers are manufactured. In order to achieve all of the necessary legislation and customer requirements, novel solutions to materials engineering challenges are being developed.

Two such challenges faced by the turbocharger industry are high temperature tribology and the corrosion and erosion environment generated by long route exhaust gas recirculation (LR EGR). Cummins Turbo Technologies has developed innovative materials engineering solutions using surface treatments applied to cost effective substrates, rather than utilising much more expensive, exotic alloys.

High Temperature Tribology
As a consequence of experiencing excessive vane and slot wear whilst in service and experiencing temperatures > 500 °C, a thermochemical diffusion surface engineering solution was developed for variable geometry systems.

Figure 1 - Variable Geometry System

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Such technology was generated using a systematic approach to tribological testing and analysis, which was pioneered by Cummins Turbo Technologies as shown in Figure 2. After comprehensive evaluation of the problem using the expertise at Cummins Turbo Technologies, it was determined that during particular operating conditions the conventional uncoated nozzle and shroud plate experienced high levels of abrasive wear and elevated friction forces.

Figure 2 - Cummins Turbo Technologies Approach to Tribological Testing and Analysis

Figure2_Tribilogical_Testing_0.gifIn order to solve the problem, a multi-disciplinary cross functional team at Cummins Turbo Technologies used the relevant customer and regulatory requirements to identify and develop the surface treatment concept. Using cutting-edge techniques, the fundamental mechanical and physical properties of the thermochemical diffusion treatment were determined. Subsequently, the surface treatment was characterised in terms of friction and wear performance using a tribometer, which simulated the variable geometry nozzle to shroud plate interface and associated operating conditions.

The surface treatment was tested on a turbocharger, on both gas stand and engine, with the results correlated to tribometer-based testing to ensure consistency of performance. This approach to the problem ensured that a robust engineering solution was identified and implemented into production; the resultant positive impact on nozzle vane wear performance can be observed in Figure 3.

Figure 3 - Comparison of Wear Performance between Untreated and Surface Treated Nozzle Vanes

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Abrasive Wear

Large Wear Volume

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Abrasive Wear

Wear Volume

Significantly Decreased

Long Route Exhaust Gas Recirculation
The turbocharger compressor stage, which includes the compressor wheel and cover (Figure 4), is subjected to a corrosive and erosive environment when an engine is operating LR EGR. The chemistry and pH of the condensate present in the compressor stage varies depending on engine operating conditions and the chemistry of the fuel. Furthermore, the architecture of the LR EGR system dictates the density and size of erosive particles to which the compressor stage is subjected.

Figure 4 - Compressor Wheel and Compressor Cover

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In order to minimise the wear and corrosion observed on the compressor wheel and cover as a result of interaction with condensate and erosive particles, surface treatments were developed for the two components. Numerous concepts for both components were identified using a multi-disciplinary cross functional team at Cummins Turbo Technologies, using regulatory and customer requirements as a guideline.

Subsequently, the concepts were subjected to numerous in-house tests which were developed using the expertise of Cummins Turbo Technologies:

Mechanical properties
Aerodynamic performance
Corrosion resistance
Erosion performance

Such experiments utilised surface treated test bars and also components in order to correlate the data from fundamental laboratory to turbocharger-based testing. The acquired data was analysed using the expertise of Cummins Turbo Technologies and various advanced techniques, with the results input into a comprehensive scoring matrix in order to select the most appropriate solution for the two respective components.

The process developed for the compressor wheel was of an anodising type, whereas a polymeric coating was developed for the compressor cover. As a result of the research and development work conducted, these technologies have been proven to significantly reduce the wear and corrosion observed on compressor wheels and covers subjected to LR EGR environments. A comparison of untreated and surface treated compressor wheels and covers can be observed in Figure 5.

Figure 5 - Untreated and Treated Compressor Wheels and Covers

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Untreated at Top

Treat at Bottom

Experts at Cummins Turbo Technologies are continually developing novel solutions to materials engineering challenges in order to meet customer requirements for more robust and durable products.

Cummins Office Building

Cummins Inc.

Cummins is a global power leader that designs, manufactures, sells and services diesel and alternative fuel engines from 2.8 to 95 liters, diesel and alternative-fueled electrical generator sets from 2.5 to 3,500 kW, as well as related components and technology. Cummins serves its customers through its network of 600 company-owned and independent distributor facilities and more than 7,200 dealer locations in over 190 countries and territories.

The High Temperature Tribological Performance of Turbocharger Wastegate Materials

Engineer Looking at Computer Monitor

This article is a summary of a technical paper delivered at the IMechE 11th International Conference on Turbochargers and Turbocharging.

Tribology within Turbochargers

There are numerous tribological interfaces, commonly termed tribosystems, within a turbocharger. Some of these, such as the rotor bearing system, are lubricated and operate at temperatures less than 200 °C. The variable geometry and wastegate systems (Figures 1 & 2) are examples of high temperature tribological interfaces within a turbocharger which are subject to temperatures between 300°C and 800 °C but are not lubricated.

Figure 1 - Variable Geometry System Figure 2 - Wastegate Assembly

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Irrespective of the nature of the tribosystem, it is vital to select the appropriate combination of materials which provide the desired friction and wear behaviour for the interface. For that reason, extensive research and development is conducted on this topic in order to optimise the tribological performance of the system and to determine the reliability and durability of the components when in service.

Tribological Characterisation of High Temperature Materials used within Turbochargers

Within high temperature tribosystems such as the variable geometry and wastegate mechanisms, turbine inlet temperature significantly affects tribological performance. This is because for a given material at high temperature, the rate of oxidation and mechanical properties vary compared to when at room temperature. Therefore, materials which find use within high temperature tribosystems are usually of high cost due to their exotic chemical composition, which is required to provide oxidation stability whilst also affording sufficient mechanical properties, frictional response and wear behaviour. Recently, there has been increased focus on the development of materials that offer a cost reduction yet similar tribological performance compared to the more conventional substrates used at high temperature. As a result, extensive testing and analysis is conducted by Cummins Turbo Technologies in order to understand and validate the capabilities of such materials within turbocharger products. The friction and wear characteristics of high temperature interfaces within a turbocharger are traditionally established through component based experimentation. Using a research and development approach founded on the fundamentals of Materials Science, Cummins Turbo Technologies is able to select preferred material combinations with confidence prior to completion of considerably more expensive and time consuming component based testing.

Fundamental Approach to Tribological Characterisation of Wastegate Materials Wastegate Turbocharger

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In this research, a high temperature tribometer was employed in order to simulate the tribological interface between a wastegate shaft and bush within a turbocharger. Such simulation is highly complex and as such, it was essential that Cummins Turbo Technologies utilised their in-house expertise to ensure that the modelled tribosystem was representative of the engineering interface. The extensive knowledge and skill base of engineers at Cummins Turbo Technologies was also used to evaluate test samples from both fundamental and turbocharger-based experiments. Extensive analysis of test samples was conducted using highly complex methods in order to characterise the substrates with regards to surface topography, tribochemistry and wear. This methodology allowed Cummins Turbo Technologies to determine why particular materials and combinations of materials possessed superior performance at specific operating conditions.

A fundamental approach to characterisation of material friction and wear performance has numerous benefits: A significant reduction in cost compared to component-based testing, since test parts do not need to be in component-form Improvement in the efficiency of the product development process, since tribometer-based experimentation is an accelerated test and results can be obtained much faster than traditional component-based validation Reduction in complexity and marked improvements in data quality compared to component-based testing High Temperature Tribological Performance of Wastegate Shaft and Bush Materials Four material combinations were selected for testing based on their suitability for the application in terms of cost, corrosion behaviour and predicted tribological performance (Table 1).

Table 1 - Tribological test substrates

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All of the material combinations were subject to fundamental tribological tests which were conducted at 600 °C, 850 °C and 950 °C. The wear performance of the material combinations was determined using an optical measurement technique. Subsequently, the rationale behind why the materials provided the observed performance was determined using high resolution surface analysis techniques and the R&D expertise of Cummins Turbo Technologies in order to characterise the substrates and acquire the greatest possible data quality. Data correlation between tribometer and component-based experiments was successfully conducted in order to ensure that the fundamental tests were relevant and provided the appropriate level of data and confidence prior to conducting much more expensive and complex component-based experiments.

Overview: Materials Science at Cummins Turbo Technologies

This fundamental approach to Materials Science research and development has significantly improved the analysis-led design and testing capabilities of Cummins Turbo Technologies, resulting in the development and delivery of superior technologies to our customers. The analysis-led testing methodology provides greater data quality, improved efficiency of the product development process and reduction in cost of Materials Science research and development. Using the experimental and analytical techniques as described above, Cummins Turbo Technologies is developing high performance material combinations which address the specific requirements for light duty to high horsepower turbocharger applications.

Cummins Office Building

Cummins Inc.

Cummins is a global power leader that designs, manufactures, sells and services diesel and alternative fuel engines from 2.8 to 95 liters, diesel and alternative-fueled electrical generator sets from 2.5 to 3,500 kW, as well as related components and technology. Cummins serves its customers through its network of 600 company-owned and independent distributor facilities and more than 7,200 dealer locations in over 190 countries and territories.

The Future of Turbocharger Technologies in the Off-Highway Sector

Turbo components

The debate around turbocharger and engine technologies in the off-highway sector has historically been one that focuses on reliability and durability. Operators in these markets need to minimise the downtime of their equipment to ensure there isnt a commercial impact on their businesses.

For example, mining companies face the challenge that they consistently need to identify and prevent issues in advance and pre-schedule periods of repair to mitigate against equipment failures, which may then impact on the ability of other stations to operate effectively. Although this remains a vital consideration for the sector, there are likely to be other changes in the market that Original Equipment Manufacturers (OEMs) of mining machinery need to prepare for, to ensure that their customers are ready for the future. Other off-highway applications face similar issues with equipment downtime having a direct implication on their operational efficiencies.

Where turbochargers for the off-highway market have focused on creating the most reliable and durable solutions previously, a bigger priority for the on-highway market in contrast has been compliance with environmental legislation. Government legislation has been in place for many years to ensure that vehicles are continually improving their fuel emissions and turbocharger technology is a primary consideration in meeting those targets. Although different regions around the world are at varying stages of this, the legislation does exist at a global level and turbocharger manufacturers have been preparing for this for a number of years.

This has led to an increase in focus for governments who will need to assess the off-highway market and analyse how machinery and equipment can achieve a greater reduction in their emissions to bring them in line with on-highway. With increasing costs of fuel, turbocharger manufacturers also need to address how their technologies can increase the efficiency of fuel in both on and off-highway. Thankfully we have reached the point at which turbocharger technologies can reduce emissions without reducing quality or workability in the off-highway sector.

Fuel Emissions & Off-Highway

As governments continue their efforts towards a low carbon community, it is only natural that other vehicles and fuel-consuming machinery (whether diesel or gas) will need to be addressed more rigorously. Although legislation exists for off-highway sectors, especially where equipment is in use on a 24/7 basis, they will need to look at all aspects of the engine to determine ways of reducing emissions by a more significant percentage. It may seem that all the hard work has been done from years of on-highway practice, but inevitably there are challenges to applying technologies designed for on-highway into an off-highway environment the demands and usage of the equipment is so different and it isnt a simple case of deploying the same solutions.

Fuel efficiency is the new priority

Fuel consumption is determined by the way that the fuel is burned in the cylinder and there are a number of ways that we can adapt the turbocharger to create both a cleaner and more efficient exhaust. Fuel efficiency is the new priority for the on-highway sector and, while previous emissions legislation drove new technologies, future emissions legislation and rising fuel costs will drive fuel economy by changing the constraint to CO2 reduction rather than NOx. This will naturally be a priority for off-highway as well, particularly when sectors such as mining use their equipment for continuous periods of time without a break.

The elements that can determine the amount of fuel consumed within such equipment include the variation in speed and load. In the high horse power market there is usually a variation in one or the other, and in mining this is likely to be in the load.

Supplementary systems installed on engines often work well when either the speed or load of the vehicle is stable. Examples of this are turbocompounding and Waste Heat Recovery, which may offer targeted and significant fuel savings but we are yet to see how cost effective they will be. There is no one size fits all solution though and OEMs need to ensure that they select the right solution for the right type of use.

Research and development experts at Cummins Turbo Technologies have spent many years developing these solutions, and we are already looking ahead to the future requirements of the market so that we are able to meet future demand as soon as it is required.

Rigorous testing in a range of environments

At Cummins Turbo Technologies, we rigorously test and trial technologies in a range of environments throughout the design phase to ensure that they are fit for market and meet stringent emissions standards while retaining their reliability and durability. We also spend time getting under the skin of how the equipment will be used so that technologies suit the operators usage. Operating as part of Cummins Components group, we are uniquely positioned to to design, test and supply integrated system solutions to optimise efficiency of turbo machines with aftertreatment and filtering, which helps deliver performance, emissions reduction and robustness in harsh environments.

New generation of turbochargers for 16 litres and above

Cummins Turbo Technologies have been able to utilise the technologies from our on-highway product to optimise for the off-highway market and therefore achieve greater savings on emissions and fuel efficiency. For example, the new generation of turbochargers for 16 litre and above applications, series 800/900/1000 has incorporated the latest turbocharger componentry, which will improve the efficiency of the turbocharger by 10%* and are engineered to meet the diverse duty cycles of this engine range.

Using such advances in technologies has allowed us to achieve the highest levels of turbocharger efficiency to date:

  • Vaned and vaneless compressor stages allows tailoring of performance for various applications, pressure ratios, map width requirements
  • Inverse impeller design uses state of the art software to develop the optimised blade shape resulting in the most efficient wheel for the chosen application
  • High efficiency turbine design improves fuel economy and cost savings to the customer
  • Super Map Width Enhancement improves drivability, improves fuel economy and improves map width by up to 15%

Preparing for regulations and rising costs

Although we dont need to go back to the drawing board on the technologies that we could use to reduce emissions, we do need to undergo a period of bespoke testing for sector specific uses often the turbocharger is put under far greater strain and is used continuously in the off-highway market - and it is inevitable that adjustments will need to be made.

OEMs for the off-highway sectors can prepare for this by starting to have those discussions now and by working collaboratively with their turbocharger partner to assess the options available before new legislation becomes imminent.

In essence, Cummins Turbo Technologies anticipates many changes ahead for engine manufacturers for the off-highway markets. We need to be prepared for future legislation and consider the challenges these sectors will face when developing these technologies. We need to consider the cost implications for mining operators in ensuring their machinery ticks the emissions box, while fuel costs continue to soar. More importantly, we must not lose sight of the core fundamental concern of the sector to continue to minimise downtime. Our job, and challenge for the future as turbocharger manufacturers, is to create technologies that address these trends in the sector, but continue to perform robustly and remain reliable and durable.

* Figure is based on improvement against previous turbocharger products available

Cummins Office Building

Cummins Inc.

Cummins is a global power leader that designs, manufactures, sells and services diesel and alternative fuel engines from 2.8 to 95 liters, diesel and alternative-fueled electrical generator sets from 2.5 to 3,500 kW, as well as related components and technology. Cummins serves its customers through its network of 600 company-owned and independent distributor facilities and more than 7,200 dealer locations in over 190 countries and territories.

Development of Cummins Turbo Technologies Integrated M²™ Two-Stage systems Architecture using Rotary Turbine Control (RTC) Technology for the Cummins 5.0L V8 Turbo-Diesel Engine

M2 Two-Stage

Cummins Turbo Technologies recently launched a pioneering new Two-Stage turbocharger, the next generation Holset M²™ Two-Stage System with Rotary Turbine Control (RTC) which is Cummins most sophisticated turbocharger to date and delivers high efficiency, excellent driveability and low emissions levels. Successfully developed simultaneously to a major new engine development for Cummins, the ISV 5.0L is a new engine platform for Cummins with its flagship launch on the 2016 Nissan Titan XD pickup truck in North America. This article is a summary of the paper delivered at the 20th Supercharging Conference and highlights some of the system and product development challenges involved in the development of this fully integrated system, specifically looking at the product development challenges of the RTC system. To read the full version of the paper click here. System Engineering Challenges The integrated M²™ system differs from the other turbochargers in the market by its unique architecture and also the complexity of packaging the turbocharger. Due to the physical size of this architecture, the turbochargers most obvious first challenge was to fit or package it in space whilst avoiding surrounding engine components and optimizing for the many potential risks of being in such close proximity to other important engine sub-systems and components. Along with the highly interactive functional requirements, a system thinking mind-set had to be at the core of every team member to achieve program requirements. The project required a high performance team capable with the skills necessary to solve complex problems where both requirements and capabilities were unclear and fuzzy at the outset of the program. The team members had to have the skill and/or tools available to break down critical complex functions into definable functional objectives to execute the project. The full version highlights a few of the more useful system tools used on the journey. Product Development Challenges Nowhere was product development more challenging than in the Rotary Turbine Control (RTC) System, which is a groundbreaking development for the industry. This turbo technology had many new, unique and/or difficult (NUD) functions and components where engineering standard work and traditional computer-aided engineering (CAE) models lacked capability and/or real world usage correlation. This created a greater dependence on the use of a combination of critical thinking, Six Sigma, product and systems engineering tools. The repeating scenario that the team often found itself in can be best visualized using a Mental Model Archetype as shown in Fig 1.

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Rotary Turbine Control (RTC) System
The main challenge of this turbocharger development was the RTC system and its many functions required using an actively controlled exhaust-side valve. Figure 2 shows various modes the valve allows. In most if not all conventional automotive sequential two-stage turbo architectures to this point, the state-of-the-art is to use a wastegate style poppet swing valve to achieve the bypassing function between the two turbochargers. For the RTC valve system, it doesnt end here. Not only is it utilized to channel (or bypass) flow between two turbines, but it has the additional functional requirements of an integrated wastegate for the low pressure (LP) turbine as well as exhaust throttling functionality to enable engine warm-up and aftertreatment regeneration. These added functions within a single valve design is something not seen in the industry today and represents a significant breakthrough in exhaust-side valve technology.

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However, with the added functionality came significant technical challenges:

  • Design Packaging Constraints another NUD for this system was to attach the actuator for the RTC system not on the turbocharger itself, but on the intake manifold cover. This provided easier access to the actuator for serviceability, but introduced design and product development challenges with respect to tolerance stack-up and variation.
  • Kinematic Challenges the RTC control valve with all of its functionality required over 130 degrees of rotation presenting significant kinematic challenges and no fewer than half a dozen design iterations throughout development.
  • Reliability one challenge often seen with actively controlled turbochargers is the ability of the flow control device to operate reliably in a severe non-lubricated, high temperature diesel exhaust gas environment.
  • Torque Output having sufficient torque available at the actuator (i.e. capability or supply of torque) vs. the torque required to turn the RTC valve (i.e. mechanical system requirement or demand for torque) under all possible scenarios is one of the most challenging elements of developing actively controlled turbocharging systems. Having a positive torque margin is required, therefore solving this challenge involves a delicate blend of design changes to reduce demand whilst ensuring robust supply of torque at all times.

Due to the high degree of system complexity and relative immaturity of advanced computer aided engineering tools, running expensive physical testing often became the most time and cost efficient way to learn about the interactions and product capabilities and iterate on the designs. Developing correlated models was then needed to help drive the validation testing away from hardware toward virtual CAE tools, but often still fell short in capability due to the complex nature of the system.

The full paper also walks through a few more RTC components along with other hardware product development challenges and can be accessed here.

Outlook for the Future
Developing this fully integrated system brought about many system engineering and product development challenges but the end result is one of the most sophisticated turbochargers that Cummins has developed to date, delivering high performance that enables excellent driveability, low emissions and fuel economy. Cummins Turbo Technologies are confident that we have a product that enables Cummins to achieve many successes in the future on this product. Future variants of this technology are already in exploration and Cummins Turbo Technologies hope to utilize the lessons learned on this program and apply them to future opportunities around the globe. To learn more about the Holset M²™ Two-Stage System with RTC and its different modes of operation view our video on YouTube.

Cummins Office Building

Cummins Inc.

Cummins is a global power leader that designs, manufactures, sells and services diesel and alternative fuel engines from 2.8 to 95 liters, diesel and alternative-fueled electrical generator sets from 2.5 to 3,500 kW, as well as related components and technology. Cummins serves its customers through its network of 600 company-owned and independent distributor facilities and more than 7,200 dealer locations in over 190 countries and territories.

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